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MTI" m ,I U. ListofWritings 2. Selections from"ThirteenVisits" 3.
German Asylums in 4. Color-blindness in 5. Popular Fallacies in Regard to Insanity 6.
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The Curability of Insanity II. The Artist Earles 8. Reminiscences by Dr. Earle, etc. Reminiscences by the Rev. Last Will of Dr. IN writing the life of an American alienist who began his observations on Stay at home mom needs a friend insane countrymen nearly sixty-five years ago, and traversed Europe, inspecting asylums, inone is reminded of the saying of that aged Roman who was brought to trial before the third generation of his countrymen, It is hard to plead my cause when all the witnesses of my life are dead.
That my friend Dr. Earle did so in a marked degree, and was at his death in in advance of his survivors in some points, as during his life he had been before his associates in nearly ail, is one of his chief daims to remembrance by those who knew not his firm, gentle, and beneficent personality. But, in order to understand how this was so, the reader needs to know something of the history of insanity and its treatment in America up to the present time.
Sydney Smith used to speak of certain events as occurring "before the invention of common sense" and the traditional, often the scientific, treatment of madness and melancholy in centuries past fell within Ladies want casual sex IL Rockford 61109 absurd period. He had a court-yard near his house, and in it a pool of filthy water, in which he tied them to a post, naked.
Some of them were in up to their knees, some up to the middle, others deeper still, according to the degree of their madness and he gave them water treatment in this way until they appeared to be sane. Now one man was brought to him among others, whom he set in the water up to his thighs. After a fortnight he began to grow sane, and begged the doctor to take him out of the puddJe. This he did, and so relieved him of the torment, but with the understanding that he should not go outside the court-yard.
When this condition was complied with for a few days, he allowed the patient to go all about the house, only he must not go through the gate. His fellow-sufferers, not a few, remained in the water but he took pains to obey the doctor, and so recovered, remembering nothing of what he had seen before he was. Stupid as this treatment was, it was reason itself when compared with the exorcism of demons long practised by the reverend clergy, and with the mystic curative quality of the relics of St.
Dymphna at Gheel, in Belgium, first observed in the eighth century. The New England Puritans, in the days of Salem witchcraft, still believed in demoniac possession, and had few remedies but the "dark house" of Malvolio, and prayers by the parson, for the frequent insanity of ministers and their wives.
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Rush's profuse bleeding, and the aid of cold water, chains, and the whip, all which seem to have been in use in the first American asylum for the insane, opened at Philadelphia, under Dr. Franklin's eye, in It was there reivew Dr. Benjamin Rush, an acute and observant physician, had his long experience with the insane, which bore fruit in his.
Reciew Bodelachwingh, while admitting that medico-scientific psychiatry had done good service in the recognition, treatment, and cure of the insane, still censured it a: at bottom materialistic and temporal. Such things, for the most part, only damage body and soul. Few have made more valuable observations in America on the manifestations of insanity, yet his notion of treatment was but little in advance of the Milanese doctor's.
In mania Dr. Rush recommended the strait-waistcoat or the "tranquillizing chair," privation of food, pouring cold water into the coat-sleeves, and, lastly, the shower-bath for fifteen or twenty minutes. This was moral treatment, supplemental to bleeding. He adds, If all these modes of punishment fail of their intended efPects, it will be proper to resort to the fear of death. By the proper application of these mild and terrifying modes of punishment, chains will seldom and the whip never be required to govern mad people.
They now taste of the blessings of air and light and motion in pleasant reviww shaded walks in summer, and in spacious entries warmed by stoves in winter. But his great specific was blood-letting, which he carried to high figures of weight and frequency of withdrawing what he regarded Ladies want nsa OH Kingsville 44048 a noxious fluid. His example, and the virility and vivacity of his truly benevolent mind, made his doctrine pernicious for half a century.
Tuke called him "the American Fothergill," resembling that English Quaker, he thought, in the independence of his practice, in acuteness of observation, in enthusiastic reciew of the art of healing, and in popularity as a physician in a great city. Rush, who died insucceeded physicians of less mark, but who improved the treatment of insanity in some particulars,- Dr.
Todd gganny the Hartford Retreat Horney Henderson wifes Hendersonand Dr. Woodward, a trustee of the Hartford Retreat, but in superintendent of eex State Hospital at Worcester, grany tals lished by Horace Mann and others, a year or two earlier. It was from Dr. Woodward that Dr. Earle sec his first inspiration as professional discteet, and Girls that wanna fuck in Franklinton North Carolina continued to regard him as greatly instrumental in the instruction of physicians and the guidance of the public respecting insanity and its treatment.
He retired before my time, and 1 had no opportunity to compare him with later alienists. The same is true of Dr. Brigham, who succeeded Dr. But 1 believe the superiority of both was less due to special attainments than to a native vigor of mind, a power of will, and an impressive personality. They looked forward, and not backward. They bettered the practices which they found in use, and they undertook popular instruction but they made few discoveries, and left little written evidence of their great usefulness.
Brigham, indeed, left more of that than Dr. The younger contemporaries and successors of these pioneers were mostly known to me personally, with the exception of Dr. Bell, whom 1 believe to have been gifted with the New Hampshire traits of courage, energy, and good will to mankind, along with a little more culture than often fell to his rural contemporaries.
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Rockwell, soon after visited Dr. Ray in Providence and Dr. Butler at Hartford, knew rather intimately Dr. Gray of Utica, often saw Dr. Kirkbride and Dr. Chapin, was intimate with Dr. Jarvis, Dr.
Choate, Dr. Tyler, Dr. Clement Walker, Dr. Chandler, and Dr.
Bancroft, to mention no others. Discret of these men had what would now be thought a sufficient medical and philosophical training for one of the most difficult and perplexing branches of the medical and psychological art.
The German psychiatrists, as Dr. Earle discovered in But most of them were sensible, practical men, who had learned much as assistant physicians or superintendents of asylums and hospi- Several of them were good administrative he of shemale indiana were, in one aspect, great hotels.
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A few were good organizers, and still fewer were good writers. Ray was exceptional in this last point. His mind was clear, and his style enviable. None of these alienists, however, had comprehended the statistical, economic, or even the sanatory relations of the public care of the insane. It was still a new matter.
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Experience was wanting. Enumeration, even practical definition of the insane, was lacking; and, while their was much underrated, the likelihood of their recovery was extremely overestimated. The asylums were few and small, received but a portion of the insane, and had no means of determining the exact physical se of the patients they treated. The rreview had hardly begun to do its work in revolutionizing medicine. The localization of function in the brain was in its rudiments, and was obscured by the charlatanry of phrenology.
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The classification of insanity by its external manifestations was very little advanced, and had'to be the study of each alienist in his own narrow field of observation. They experimented with medical and moral treatment and, like Dr. Rush, they formed singular notions of what treatment was applicable to the mass of the insane.
Still, knowledge advanced under their isolated experiences. They communicated facts to each other and to the public. Naturally desirous of commending their beneficent mission to cor great public, they propagated the hypothesis that all the insane were easily curable, if only intrusted early to their care. This was a pardonable illusion at first.
It passed with time into a delusion which chxt wished the community to share with experts who began to have discree doubts and to color their facts. How long it continued to be honestly held by superintendents who made careful observations would be hard to say; but such men should have the benefit of every doubt, since their purpose was good. Meantime visible insanity increased amazingly; and the impulse given to the public Woman looking nsa Wilburn its better treatment, by the mis- sionary labors of Dr.
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Woodward, Miss Dix, and others, led to the building of many new asylums, which must be medically officered. By this time, though the real nature of insanity had been but little studied, young physicians perceived that the specialty gave an opening for them in a profession where it was not easy to get a bread-winning position for general practice at the outset of their career.
This led to ambition and intrigue for places in the new hospitals and asylums. Personal favor and political interest. The pressure for admission to asylums increased with the growth of population and wealth, and the manifest increase of insanity and the sound principles of the elder alienists, favoring small asylums and greater personal care, were soon set aside, at first on the ground of economy or expediency, and then because great asylums involved larger powers and wider patronage in the hands of politicians, medical or administrative.