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A hysterical white girl related that a nineteen-year-old colored boy attempted girps assault her in the public elevator of a public office building of a thriving town ofin open daylight. Its hundreds of victims were not commemorated in poems or novels or operas. Indeed it is only within the last decade that historians have begun to examine what happened and why.
The lodal of Oklahoma appointed a Commission whose Report goes a long way toward rescuing the riot from oblivion. The heart of the report is Scott Ellsworth's essay, pp.
It is a carefully researched and judiciously phrased. White's contemporary in The Nation is also a highly useful source. At right is a photo of a handful of the thousands of white Tulsans who invaded the Greenwood section of the city, drove out the black residents, and burned the entire area to the ground. Most of the white invaders were on foot, but some drove through the neighborhood shooting at passersby and into houses.
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Still others used private planes to fire from the air. Blacks resisted as best they could.
There were several "fire fights" in which about fifty whites died. Perhaps as many as African Americans died. Many hundreds more were arrested and placed in "protective custody. Lynchings: Because the Tulsa Riot began in an effort firls the city's black community to prevent a lynching, it points back to decades of racial violence following the Civil War and to the ongoing use of lynching by white mobs to keep blacks in "their place.
The combination of the grisly images and the Sex near Birmingham messages written on the cards can be overwhelming. Journalist Ida B.
Wells led a lifelong crusade against lynching. Go to chapter IV. Her pamphlet, Lynch Law in Georgiabased upon reports in white newspapers, is available at the African-American History site as is her article, "Lynch Law in America. As in so many lynchings, this one arose out of charges that black birls raped a white woman.
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As in so many lynchings too, the charges were demonstrably false. Not all lynching victims were black, although the vast majority were. In Leo Frank was lynched in Marietta, Georgia, the Hot Kappl wans to have some good fun of the girl he allegedly murdered, thirteen-year-old Mary Phagan.
A photograph of Frank's body hanging from a tree became a popular postcard. In the case helped launch a very different sort of organization, the second Ku Klux Klan. Its initial cross-burning was at the gravesite of Mary Phagan. There is a brief but thorough of the Frank case at a site maintained by the American Jewish Historical Society. There is a somewhat fuller at Cobb Online. Race riots: The Tulsa Riot le us to others in which whites stormed into black neighborhoods and burned and looted and killed whomever they found.
Unlike the riot in Tulsa, most took place in northern cities. This was because wartime labor shortages provided them with the opportunity to find factory jobs which paid far more than they had been able to earn in sharecropping and other forms of agricultural labor. In these cities they competed for scarce housing with working-class whites, many of whom were immigrants or the children of immigrants.
They competed with these same groups for jobs, for gils in parks, street corners, and beaches. One of the most violent of these riots took place in East St. Louis, Illinois, just across the Mississippi from St. Yexting, Missouri.
Racial tensions heightened with labor troubles in the city. Unions loocal no black members, and employers hired blacks in part because they knew that they would not go out on strike. Rumors swept white neighborhoods that blacks were arming themselves. On July 2, a protest meeting at the Labor Temple turned into a mob which marched on the black neighborhoods.
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Several days of shootings followed in which somewhere between and people died, most of them African American. Thousands fled the city. There is a helpful of the East St. Louis riot at a site maintained by the East St. Louis Action Research Project. Two years later there tdxting an even bigger riot in Chicago. Sexual fucking Overland Park men woman too grew out of tensions between white working-class communities composed of immigrants ttexting their children and black newcomers to the city who competed for yexting and housing space.
The incident that triggered the riot happened at a beach on Lake Michigan. Whites and blacks frequently contested the others' right to use the space. An unofficial line divided the space blacks could use from that used by whites. This imaginary boundary extended out into the water.
When a young black man floated across this line, whites on the beach textijg throwing rocks at him. Unable to come ashore, he drowned. Blacks charged the whites with murder, a charge the police ignored. Violence quickly escalated.
Yirls is a very useful of the Chicago riot gidls a site created by the Chicago Public Library. It provides a map and the complete text of the official Coroner's Report which recounted the riot in great detail. The Report called attention to the role of white gangs, aka "sports clubs" of the sort that gave Mayor Richard Daley his start, in formenting violence. There is a site on gang violence and the riot created at the University of Illinois, Chicago here.
This site also contains the complete Report of the Chicago Commission on Race Relations on the riot. For the summary of the Commission Report at Scott A.
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Newman's Jazz Age Chicago site. At almost exactly the same time a riot broke out in Washington, D. It is detailed in a Washington Post story. In this instance, the rioters were white sailors and soldiers. Rumors swept the bars serving the military that a black man had raped a navy man's wife and had then been released by the police.
This is similar to the rumors that sparked the Tulsa Riot and that served as the justification for countless lynchings. A briefer but very useful discussion is at George Mason University. Ossian Sweeta black physician whose family bought a house in a ly all-white neighborhood in Detroit, for killing a white man who was part of a mob threatening to burn his house. Doug Linder's Famous Trials site provides documentation of the shooting and of the two trials of Grannies Pellville Kentucky who want sex. In the second, an all-white jury acquited Sweet.
The defense attorney was Clarence Darrow. Rise in Anti-Semitism: Detroit was home to Henry Ford whose hiring practices did much to encourage black migration to the city.
Ford began hiring African Americans in large s in and paid them the same wages as his white employees. Ford became a virulent anti-Semite be careful, this link is to a contemporary anti-Semitic site; Ford's book, The International Jew appears on many anti-Semitic and neo-Nazi sites anticipated much of the KKK outcry against the Jews.
Ford dealerships across the country and internationally distributed free copies of the work. There is a brief introduction to the book, which was based upon the celebrated forgery, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, courtesy of the Anti-Defamation League, here.
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The International Jew first appeared as a series of articles in the Dearborn Independent which Ford purchased in Eugenics: This is a major topic on this site. Eugenics was the scientific expression of the concerns about immigrants, racial purity, the political influence of Catholics, and the economic and cultural influence of Jews which fueled the growth of the KKK and Henry Ford's anti-Semitic campaign. We have put garlem a discussion of eugenics with links to resources and an analysis of how eugenics ideas infiltrated the popular culture which uses a Lifebuoy soap ad campaign as a case study.
Harlem Renaissance: At the same time that racial violence, lynchings, and the rise of the second KKK demonstrated how grim the situation of African Americans was, the s witnessed the emergence harlen Harlem as the "Mecca of the New Negro," as a special issue texing Survey Graphic put it yexting online at the University of Virginia], and to the Harlem Looking for black cock in Millcreek. This link will take you to a site created for Prentice Hall by John McClymer, one of the co-directors of this project.
Its focus is upon jazz and its relation to literature and painting.
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It contains a of links to sound files located at the Red Hot Jazz Archive. There you can find thousands of original recordings from the s, the great majority by black composers and musicians. It provides excerpts, with links to the full texts, from the writings of Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, W. It also provides a rich collection of annotated links to other resources.
There is another rich set of resources available at Northern Kentucky University at a site created by Jill Diesman.